## How to start a paper?

Starting a paper is easy. That is, if you don’t care for the marketing, don’t want to be memorable, and just want to get on with the story and quickly communicate what you have proved. Fair enough.

But that only works when your story is very simple, as in “here is a famous conjecture which we solve in this paper”. You are implicitly assuming that the story of the conjecture has been told elsewhere, perhaps many times, so that the reader is ready to see it finally resolved. But if your story is more complicated, this “get to the point” approach doesn’t really work (and yes, I argue in this blog post and this article there is always a story). Essentially you need to prepare the reader for what’s to come.

In my “*How to write a clear math paper*” (see also my blog post) I recommend writing the *Foreword *— a paragraph or two devoted to philosophy underlying your work or a high level explanation of the key idea in your paper before you proceed to state the main result:

Consider putting in the Foreword some highly literary description of what you are doing. If it’s beautiful or sufficiently memorable, it might be quoted in other papers, sometimes on a barely related subject, and bring some extra clicks to your work. Feel free to discuss the big picture, NSF project outline style, mention some motivational examples in other fields of study, general physical or philosophical principles underlying your work, etc. There is no other place in the paper to do this, and I doubt referees would object if you keep your Foreword under one page. For now such discussions are relegated to surveys and monographs, which is a shame since as a result some interesting perspectives of many people are missing.

Martin Krieger has a similar idea which he discusses at length in his 2018 *AMS Notices* article *Don’t Just Begin with “Let A be an algebra…” * This convinced me that I really should follow his (and my own) advice.

So recently I took a stock of my open opening lines (usually, joint with coauthors), and found a mixed bag. I decided to list some of them below for your amusement. I included only those which are less closely related to the subject matter of the article, so might appeal to broader audience. I am grateful to all my collaborators which supported or at least tolerated this practice.

### Combinatorics matters

Combinatorics has always been a battleground of tools and ideas. That’s why it’s so hard to do, or even define.

Combinatorial inequalities(2019)

The subject of enumerative combinatorics is both classical and modern. It is classical, as the basic counting questions go back millennia; yet it is modern in the use of a large variety of the latest ideas and technical tools from across many areas of mathematics. The remarkable successes from the last few decades have been widely publicized; yet they come at a price, as one wonders if there is anything left to explore. In fact, are there enumerative problems that cannot be resolved with existing technology?

Complexity problems in enumerative combinatorics (2018), see also this blog post.

Combinatorial sequences have been studied for centuries, with results ranging from minute properties of individual sequences to broad results on large classes of sequences. Even just listing the tools and ideas can be exhausting, which range from algebraic to bijective, to probabilistic and number theoretic. The existing technology is so strong, it is rare for an open problem to remain unresolved for more than a few years, which makes the surviving conjectures all the more interesting and exciting.

Pattern avoidance is not P-recursive(2015), see also this blog post.

In Enumerative Combinatorics, the results are usually easy to state. Essentially, you are counting the number of certain combinatorial objects: exactly, asymptotically, bijectively or otherwise. Judging the importance of the results is also relatively easy: the more natural or interesting the objects are, and the stronger or more elegant is the final formula, the better. In fact, the story or the context behind the results is usually superfluous since they speak for themselves.

Hook inequalities (2020)

### Proof deconstruction

There are two schools of thought on what to do when an interesting combinatorial inequality is established. The first approach would be to treat it as a tool to prove a desired result. The inequality can still be sharpened or generalized as needed, but this effort is aimed with applications as the goal and not about the inequality per se.

The second approach is to treat the inequality as a result of importance in its own right. The emphasis then shifts to finding the “right proof” in an attempt to understand, refine or generalize it. This is where the nature of the inequality intervenes — when both sides count combinatorial objects, the desire to relate these objects is overpowering.

Effective poset inequalities (2022)

There is more than one way to explain a miracle. First, one can show how it is made, a step-by-step guide to perform it. This is the most common yet the least satisfactory approach as it takes away the joy and gives you nothing in return. Second, one can investigate away every consequence and implication, showing that what appears to be miraculous is actually both reasonable and expected. This takes nothing away from the miracle except for its shining power, and puts it in the natural order of things. Finally, there is a way to place the apparent miracle as a part of the general scheme. Even, or especially, if this scheme is technical and unglamorous, the underlying pattern emerges with the utmost clarity.

Hook formulas for skew shapes IV (2021)

In Enumerative Combinatorics, when it comes to fundamental results, one proof is rarely enough, and one is often on the prowl for a better, more elegant or more direct proof. In fact, there is a wide belief in multitude of “proofs from the Book”, rather than a singular best approach. The reasons are both cultural and mathematical: different proofs elucidate different aspects of the underlying combinatorial objects and lead to different extensions and generalizations.

Hook formulas for skew shapes II (2017)

### Hidden symmetries

The phrase “

hidden symmetries” in the title refers to coincidences between the numbers of seemingly different (yet similar) sets of combinatorial objects. When such coincidences are discovered, they tend to be fascinating because they reflect underlying algebraic symmetries — even when the combinatorial objects themselves appear to possess no such symmetries.It is always a relief to find a simple combinatorial explanation of hidden symmetries. A direct bijection is the most natural approach, even if sometimes such a bijection is both hard to find and to prove. Such a bijection restores order to a small corner of an otherwise disordered universe, suggesting we are on the right path in our understanding. It is also an opportunity to learn more about our combinatorial objects.

Bijecting hidden symmetries for skew staircase shapes (2021)

Hidden symmetries are pervasive across the natural sciences, but are always a delight whenever discovered. In Combinatorics, they are especially fascinating, as they point towards both advantages and limitations of the tools. Roughly speaking, a combinatorial approach strips away much of the structure, be it algebraic, geometric, etc., while allowing a direct investigation often resulting in an explicit resolution of a problem. But this process comes at a cost — when the underlying structure is lost, some symmetries become invisible, or “hidden”.

Occasionally this process runs in reverse. When a hidden symmetry is discovered for a well-known combinatorial structure, it is as surprising as it is puzzling, since this points to a rich structure which yet to be understood (sometimes uncovered many years later). This is the situation of this paper.

Hidden symmetries of weighted lozenge tilings (2020)

### Problems in Combinatorics

How do you approach a massive open problem with countless cases to consider? You start from the beginning, of course, trying to resolve either the most natural, the most interesting or the simplest yet out of reach special cases. For example, when looking at the billions and billions of stars contemplating the immense challenge of celestial cartography, you start with the

Durfee squares, symmetric partitions and bounds on Kronecker coefficients (2022)closest(Alpha Centauri and Barnard’s Star), thebrightest(Sirius and Canopus), or themost useful(Polaris aka North Star), but not with the galaxy far, far away.

Different fields have different goals and different open problems. Most of the time, fields peacefully coexist enriching each other and the rest of mathematics. But occasionally, a conjecture from one field arises to present a difficult challenge in another, thus exposing its technical strengths and weaknesses. The story of this paper is our effort in the face of one such challenge.

Kronecker products, characters, partitions, and the tensor square conjectures (2016)

It is always remarkable and even a little suspicious, when a nontrivial property can be proved for a large class of objects. Indeed, this says that the result is “global”, i.e. the property is a consequence of the underlying structure rather than individual objects. Such results are even more remarkable in combinatorics, where the structures are weak and the objects are plentiful. In fact, many reasonable conjectures in the area fail under experiments, while some are ruled out by theoretical considerations.

Log-concave poset inequalities (2021)

Sometimes a conjecture is more than a straightforward claim to be proved or disproved. A conjecture can also represent an invitation to understand a certain phenomenon, a challenge to be confirmed or refuted in every particular instance. Regardless of whether such a conjecture is true or false, the advances toward resolution can often reveal the underlying nature of the objects.

On the number of contingency tables and the independence heuristic (2022)

### Combinatorial Interpretations

Finding a combinatorial interpretation is an everlasting problem in Combinatorics. Having combinatorial objects assigned to numbers brings them depth and structure, makes them alive, sheds light on them, and allows them to be studied in a way that would not be possible otherwise. Once combinatorial objects are found, they can be related to other objects via bijections, while the numbers’ positivity and asymptotics can then be analyzed.

What is in #P and what is not? (2022)

Traditionally, Combinatorics works with numbers. Not with structures, relations between the structures, or connections between the relations — just numbers. These numbers tend to be nonnegative integers, presented in the form of some exact formula or disguised as probability. More importantly, they always count the number of some combinatorial objects.

This approach, with its misleading simplicity, led to a long series of amazing discoveries, too long to be recounted here. It turns out that many interesting combinatorial objects satisfy some formal relationships allowing for their numbers to be analyzed. More impressively, the very same combinatorial objects appear in a number of applications across the sciences.

Now, as structures are added to Combinatorics, the nature of the numbers and our relationship to them changes. They no longer count something explicit or tangible, but rather something ephemeral or esoteric, which can only be understood by invoking further results in the area. Even when you think you are counting something combinatorial, it might take a theorem or a even the whole theory to realize that what you are counting is well defined.

This is especially true in Algebraic Combinatorics where the numbers can be, for example, dimensions of invariant spaces, weight multiplicities or Betti numbers. Clearly, all these numbers are nonnegative integers, but as defined they do not count anything per se, at least in the most obvious or natural way.

What is a combinatorial interpretation? (2022)

### Covering all bases

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a combinatorial theory is often judged not by its intrinsic beauty but by the examples and applications. Fair or not, this attitude is historically grounded and generally accepted. While eternally challenging, this helps to keep the area lively, widely accessible, and growing in unexpected directions.

Hook formulas for skew shapes III (2019)

In the past several decades, there has been an explosion in the number of connections and applications between Geometric and Enumerative Combinatorics. Among those, a number of new families of “combinatorial polytopes” were discovered, whose volume has a combinatorial significance. Still, whenever a new family of

Triangulations of Cayley and Tutte polytopes (2013)n-dimensional polytopes is discovered whose volume is a familiar integer sequence (up to scaling), it feels like a “minor miracle”, a familiar face in a crowd in a foreign country, a natural phenomenon in need of an explanation.

The problem of choosing one or few objects among the many has a long history and probably existed since the beginning of human era (e.g. “

When and how n choose k (1996)Choose twelve men from among the people” Joshua 4:2). Historically this choice was mostly rational and random choice was considered to be a bad solution. Times have changed, however. [..] In many cases random solution has become desirable, if not the only possibility. Which means that it’s about time we understand the nature of a random choice.

### Books are ideas

In his famous 1906 “white suit” speech, Mark Twain recalled a meeting before the House of Lords committee, where he argued in favor of perpetual copyright. According to Twain, the chairman of the committee with “some resentment in his manner,” countered: “

What is a book? A book is just built from base to roof on ideas, and there can be no property in it.”Sidestepping the copyright issue, the unnamed chairman had a point. In the year 2021, in the middle of the pandemic, books are ideas. They come in a variety of electronic formats and sizes, they can be “borrowed” from the “cloud” for a limited time, and are more ephemeral than long lasting. Clinging to the bygone era of safety and stability, we just keep thinking of them as sturdy paper volumes.

When it comes to math books, the ideas are fundamental. Really, we judge them largely based on the ideas they present, and we are willing to sacrifice both time and effort to acquire these ideas. In fact, as a literary genre, math books get away with a slow uninventive style, dull technical presentation, anticlimactic ending, and no plot to speak of. The book under review is very different. [..]

See this books review and this blog post (2021).

**Warning**: This post is not meant to be a writing advice. The examples I give are merely for amusement purposes and definitely not be emulated. I am happy with some of these quotes and a bit ashamed of others. Upon reflection, the style is overly dramatic most likely because I am overcompensating for something. But hey — if you are still reading this you probably enjoyed it…

## How I chose Enumerative Combinatorics

Apologies for not writing anything for awhile. After Feb 24, the *math *part of the “*life and math*” slogan lost a bit of relevance, while the actual events were stupefying to the point when I had nothing to say about the *life *part. Now that the shock subsided, let me break the silence by telling an old personal story which is neither relevant to anything happening right now nor a lesson to anyone. Sometimes a story is just a story…

#### My field

As the readers of this blog know, I am a * Combinatorialist*. Not a “proud one”. Just “a combinatorialist”. To paraphrase a military slogan “there are many fields like this one, but this one is mine”. While I’ve been defending my field for years, writing about its struggles, and often defining it, it’s not because this field is more important than others. Rather, because it’s so frequently misunderstood.

In fact, I *have *worked in other (mostly adjacent) fields, but that was usually because I was curious. Curious what’s going on in other areas, curious if they had tools to help me with my problems. Curious if they had problems that could use my tools. I would go to seminars in other fields, read papers, travel to conferences, make friends. Occasionally this strategy paid off and I would publish something in another field. Much more often nothing ever came out of that. It was fun regardless.

Anyway, I wanted to work in combinatorics for as long as I can remember, since I was about 15 or so. There is something inherently discrete about the way I see the world, so much that having additional structure is just obstructing the view. Here is how Gian-Carlo Rota famously put it:

Combinatorics is an honest subject. […] You either have the right number or you haven’t. You get the feeling that the result you have discovered is forever, because it’s concrete. [

Los Alamos Science, 1985]

I agree. Also, I really like to count. When prompted, I always say “*I work in Combinatorics*” even if sometimes I really don’t. But in truth, the field is much too large and not unified, so when asked to be more specific (this rarely happens) I say “*Enumerative Combinatorics*“. What follows is a short story of how I made the choice.

#### Family vacation

When I was about 18, Andrey Zelevinsky (ז״ל) introduced me and Alex Postnikov to Israel Gelfand and asked what should we be reading if we want to do combinatorics. Unlike most leading mathematicians in Russia, Gelfand had a surprisingly positive view on the subject (see e.g. his quotes here). He suggested we both read Macdonald’s book, which was translated into Russian by Zelevinsky himself just a few years earlier. The book was extremely informative but dry as a fig and left little room for creativity. I read a large chunk of it and concluded that if this is what modern combinatorics looks like, I want to have nothing to do with it. Alex had a very different impression, I think.

Next year, my extended family decided to have a vacation on a Russian “river cruise”. I remember a small passenger boat which left Moscow river terminal, navigated a succession of small rivers until it reached Volga. From there, the boat had a smooth gliding all the way to the Caspian Sea. The vacation was about three weeks of a hot Summer torture with the only relief served by mouth-watering fresh watermelons.

What made it worse, there was absolutely nothing to see. Much of the way Volga is enormously wide, sometimes as wide as the English channel. Most of the time you couldn’t even see the river banks. The cities distinguished themselves only by an assortment of Lenin statues, but were unremarkable otherwise. Volgograd was an exception with its very impressive tallest statue in Europe, roughly as tall as the Statue of Liberty when combined with its pedestal. Impressive for sure, but not worth the trip. Long story short, the whole cruise vacation was dreadfully boring.

#### One good book can make a difference

While most of my relatives occupied themselves by reading crime novels or playing cards, I was reading a math book, the only book I brought with me. This was Stanley’s *Enumerative Combinatorics* (vol. 1) whose Russian translation came out just a few months earlier. So I read it cover-to-cover, but doing only the easiest exercises just to make sure I understand what’s going on. That book changed everything…

Midway through, when I was reading about linear extensions of posets in Ch. 3 with their obvious connections to *standard Young tableaux* and the hook-length formula (which I already knew by then), I had an idea. From Macdonald’s book, I remembered the *q*-analogue of #SYT via the “*charge*“, a statistics introduced by Lascoux and Schützenberger to give a combinatorial interpretation of *Kostka polynomials*, and which works even for skew Young diagram shapes. I figured that skew shapes are generic enough, and there should be a generalization of the charge to all posets. After several long days filled with some tedious calculations by hand, I came up with both the statement and the proof of the *q-*analogue of the number of linear extensions.

I wrote the proof neatly in my notebook with a clear intent to publish my “remarkable discovery”, and continued reading. In Ch. 4, all of a sudden, I read the “*P-partition theory*” that I just invented by myself. It came with various applications and connections to other problems, and was presented so well, much nicer than I would have!

After some extreme disappointment, I learned from the notes that the P-partition theory was a large portion of Stanley’s own Ph.D. thesis, which he wrote *before I was born*. For a few hours, I did nothing but meditate, staring at the vast water surrounding me and ignoring my relatives who couldn’t care less what I was doing anyway. I was trying to think if there is a lesson in this fiasco.

It pays to be positive and self-assure, I suppose, in a way that only a teenager can be. That day I concluded that I am clearly doing something right, definitely smarter than everyone else even if born a little too late. More importantly, I figured that Enumerative Combinatorics done “Stanley-style” is really the right area for me…

#### Epilogue

I stopped thinking that I am smarter than everyone else within weeks, as soon as I learned more math. I no longer believe I was born too late. I did end up doing a lot of Enumerative Combinatorics. Much later I became Richard Stanley’s postdoc for a short time and a colleague at MIT for a long time. Even now, I continue writing papers on the numbers of linear extensions and standard Young tableaux. Occasionally, I also discuss their *q-*analogues (like in my most recent paper). I still care and it’s still the right area for me…

Some years later I realized that historically, the “charge” and Stanley’s q-statistics were not independent in a sense that both are generalizations of the *major index* by Percy MacMahon. In his revision of vol. 1, Stanley moved the P-partition theory up to Ch. 3, where it belongs IMO. In 2001, he received the Steele’s Prize for Mathematical Exposition for the book that changed everything…